Below is a list of several other communities across the nation that have implemented projects to use purified recycled water to supplement drinking water supplies. Some examples include:
Orange County, California – The Orange County Water District currently injects recycled water into depleted groundwater basins. The recycled water undergoes microfiltration, reverse osmosis and ultraviolet disinfection.
Inland Empire Utilities Agency (IEUA)
- Recycled water from one of IEUA’s treatment plants is also currently used to
recharge the Chino Basin aquifer at the rate of 500 AFY. The quantity of
recycled water recharged in the Basin is scheduled to increase to 2,300 AFY in
IEUA also supplies water to the Prado Regional Park Lake in southwestern San Bernardino County, the excess flow is being discharged to the Cucamonga Creek Flood Control channel and into the Santa Ana River.
West Basin Water District – This water district uses microfiltration, reverse osmosis and ultraviolet light technologies to treat recycled water for groundwater injection. A neighboring water district, the Water Replenishment District of Southern California, is considering the construction of a similar water treatment facility.
Los Angeles County – Treated wastewater runs through dual media filters at the Montebello Forebay Groundwater Recharge Project and is discharged into the Rio Hondo River. This water is diverted to the groundwater basins. The reclaimed water constitutes an average of 18.7 percent of the groundwater supply.
Reno, Nevada – The Tahoe-Truckee Sanitation Agency Water Reclamation Plant combines conventional activated sludge secondary treatment with biological phosphorus removal to treat the wastewater. The treated water is released into the Truckee River, which is the source of the City of Reno’s water supply.
El Paso, Texas – The Fred Harvey Water Reclamation Plant recovers and treats wastewater, which is then injected into the groundwater. The water eventually travels to one of El Paso’s potable water fields to become part of the drinking water supply.
In 2004, a total of 577 million gallons of reclaimed water were returned to the Hueco Bolson aquifer.
Las Vegas, Nevada – Since the 1950s, secondary treated wastewater has been discharged into the Las Vegas wash. The wash is located between the Las Vegas Valley and Lake Mead and represents two percent of the flow into Lake Mead. Lake Mead is the primary drinking water source for the Las Vegas Valley.
Scottsdale, Arizona – The City of Scottsdale uses treated effluent as a groundwater recharge source. Recycled water is put through microfiltration and reverse osmosis before it is injected into the groundwater basin.
Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County - The Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County utilize recycled water from three of their wastewater treatment plants for groundwater recharge. Below are description of each plant:
The Whittier Narrows WRP was the first reclamation plant built by the Districts in 1962. It provides primary, secondary and tertiary treatment for 15 million gallons of wastewater per day (see flow diagram below). The plant serves a population of approximately 150,000 people. Virtually all of the purified water is reused as groundwater recharge into the Rio Hondo and San Gabriel Coastal Spreading Grounds or for irrigation at an adjacent nursery.
The San Jose Creek WRP provides primary, secondary and tertiary treatment for 100 million gallons of wastewater per day (see flow diagram below). The plant serves a largely residential population of approximately one million people. Approximately 35 million gallons per day of the purified water is reused at 17 different reuse sites. These include groundwater recharge and irrigation of parks, schools, and greenbelts.
The Pomona WRP provides primary, secondary and tertiary treatment for 13 million gallons of wastewater per day (see flow diagram below). The plant serves a population of approximately 130,000 people. Approximately 8 million gallons per day of the purified water is reused at over 90 different reuse sites. These include irrigation of parks, schools, golf courses, landscaping and greenbelts, irrigation and dust control at the Spadra Landfill and industrial use by local paper manufacturers. The remainder of the purified water is put back into the San Jose Creek channel where it makes its way to the unlined portion of the San Gabriel River. Therefore, nearly 100 percent of the water is reused since most of the river water percolates into the ground water.